Thursday, July 20, 2017

Let's Learn Sinhalese in English 4

Now let’s learn how to express something that is going to happen in the future (that is, construction of the future tense sentences). There are mainly four ways. We will consider all forms (like negative statement, questions, etc) of the same sentence.

There is nothing to learn anew in the first method. Actually, you can use the same present time sentence you have been learning so far here. Usually you use an adverb (like tomorrow) that denotes future with that too (it’s not required though).

Stephanie heta e:ka kiyanava: . (Stephanie will tell it tomorrow.)

Api anidhdha: yanava: . (We will go day after tomorrow.)

Egollo e:ka karanava: . (They will do it.)

The negative statement form is just the same negative statement that you have already learned.

Mama heta yanava: . → Mama heta yanne naehae. (I will not go tomorrow.)

Sara anidhdha: enava: . → Sara anidhdha: enne naehae. (Sara will not come day after tomorrow.)

Not only the negative statement, the other forms (positive question, negative question) are the same as what you had learnt before.

Mama heta yanava:dha? (Will I go tomorrow?)

Sara anidhdha: enava:dha? (Will Sara come day after tomorrow?)

Mama heta yanne nadhdha? (Will I not go tomorrow?)

Sara anidhdha: enne nadhdha? (Will Sara not come tomorrow?)

Mama heta yanava: ne:dha? (I will go tomorrow. Won’t I?)

Sara anidhdha: enava: ne:dha? (Sara will come tomorrow. Won’t she?)

Mama heta yanne naehae ne:dha? (I will not go tomorrow. Will I?)

Sara anidhdha: enne naehae ne:dha? (Sara will not come tomorrow. Will she?)

There is another popular way of expressing something in future (the second method). In that sentence pattern, you just change the ending of “-nava:” verb. To construct this future tense verb, you first remove the “-nava:” part, and you append “-a:vi”.

Balanava: → Balanava: + a:vi → Bala:vi (will look)

Karanava: → Kararanava: + a:vi → Kara:vi (will do)

Now you can make future tense sentences as follows.

Shane ya:vi. (Shane will go.)

Ayda bath uya:vi. (Ayda will cook rice.)

Gasa kapa:vi. (The tree will be cut.)

However, this form of future tense is not used with a subject of I or We (first person pronouns). If you use this form of verb with I or We, that would be a future time sentence of course, but additionally that sentence will mean an indefinite expression (uncertain whether or not the action will be done). In short, such a sentence is expressed in English with the helping verbs of “may, might”.

Man ya:vi. (I may go. / I will probably go.)

Api e:ka kara:vi. (We may do it. / We will probably do it.)

Surprisingly, if you want to express an indefinite future tense (just as discussed in the previous paragraph) with any subject (in addition to I and We), we use this same sentence. So, this sentence pattern has two meanings with any noun/subject other than I, We – one is “normal future tense”, and the other is “indefinite future tense”.

Eya: ya:vi. (He will probably go. / He may go.)

Natalie e:vi. (Natalie may come. / Natalie will probably come.)

Oya: e:ka kiya:vi. (You may tell it. / You will probably tell it.)

The negative statement of this second kind of future tense pattern is as same as the normal negative statement you already know.

Shane yanne naehae. (Shane will not go.)
(remember this same sentence has the meaning of “Shane does not go” and “Shane is not going”; take the correct meaning based on the context)

Ayda bath uyanne naehae. (Ayda will not cook rice.)
(also, “Ayda does not cook rice” and “Ayda is not cooking rice”)

To form the positive question, you just add “-dha” at the end of the verb of the positive statement as follows. This question form also applies to the indefinite future tense.

Shane ya:vidha? (Will Shane go? Or May Shane go?)

Ayda bath uya:vidha? (Will Ayda cook rice? Or May Ayda cook rice?)

The negative question is formed like this. First assume that “-nava:” verb form is there; now remove “va:” from that verb. After that, you put “ekak naehae” at the end. This also applies to the indefinite future tense. See how it is done below.

Shane ya:vi. → (Shane yanava: + ekak naehae) → Shane yana ekak naehae. (Shane will not go. Or Shane may not go.)

Ayda bath uya:vi. → (Ayda bath uyanava: + ekak naehae) → Ayda bath uyana ekak naehae. (Ayda will not cook rice. Or Ayda may not cook rice.)

The third method is exclusive for the subject of I or We (first person pronouns). It is similar to English “shall” sentences. Here, the “-nava:” ending of the verb is changed to “-nnam”.

Mama yanava: . → Mama yannam. (I shall go.)

Api e:ka kohomahari karannam. (We shall do it somehow or other.)

The negative statement of this type of sentence is as same as normal negative statement.

Mama yanne naehae. (I shall not go.)

Api e:ka karanne naehae. (We shall not do it.)

This is how we construct the positive question. You remove “m” from the verb (let’s call this verb participle “nna verb” from this moment on), and append “dha”. Actually, this is how we make request in Sinhala too.

Karannam → Karannam + dha = karannadha

Mama yannadha? (Shall I go?)

Api e:ka karannadha? (Shall we do it?)

Last let’s make the negative question. First remove “m” from the verb like we did earlier (that is, make the “nna verb”), and put “epa:dha” after that.

Karannam → Karannam epa:dha = karanna epa:dha

Mama yanna epa:dha? (Shall I not go?)

Api e:ka karanna epa:dha? (Shall we not do it?)

The fourth method of making a future tense is similar to “be going to” sentence pattern in English. Here, we use the “nna verb” and after that we put “yanne” or “yanava:”.

Mama potha kiyavanna yanne/yanava: .
(I am going to read the book.)

Eya: nidiyanna yanava:/yanne.
(She/He is going to sleep.)

If you substitute “inne” or “innava:” for “yanne” or “yanava:” in the above sentence pattern, then you change the meaning from “be going to” to “be planning to” or “be about to”. It also gives kind of future meaning.

Mama potha kiyavanna inne/innava: .
(I am planning to read the book. / I am about to read the book.)

Eya: nidyanna inne/innava: .
(He/She is planning to sleep.)

Let’s make commands in Sinhala now. It’s very easy. Always the command is directed to the person in your presence (that is, “you”). It’s the same as in English. Follow the normal Sinhala sentence order. Here, the doer is “oya:” (singular) or “o:gollo/o:gollan, oya:la:” (plural) subject. You can omit it if you like (as in English). There is a small change in the verb ending; you just put the “nna verb” instead of the normal “-nava: verb” form.

Oya: yanna.
(You go.)

Yanna.
(Go.)

Oya: bath ho’mdin kanna.
(You eat rice well.)

Bath kanna.
(Eat rice.)

Ogollo loku potha kiyavanna.
(You (plural) read the big book.)

Potha kiyavanna.
(Read the book.)

To give a command not to do something, you just put “epa:” after verb, or before the subject (if existing), or after the subject (whether or not it exists).

Oya: yanna epa: .
Epa: oya: yanna.
Oya: epa: yanna.
(You don’t go.)

Yanna epa: .
Epa: yanna.
(Don’t go.)

Oya: bath kanna epa: .
Epa: oya: bath kanna.
Oya epa: bath kanna.
(You don’t eat rice.)

Bath kanna epa: .
Epa: bath kanna.
(Don’t eat rice.)

Ogollan potha kiyavanna epa: .
Epa: ogollan potha kiyavanna.
Ogollan epa: potha kiyavanna.
(You don’t read the book.)

Potha kiyavanna epa: .
Epa: potha kiyavanna.
(Don’t read the book.)

If you want to make the command more polite, you can put “karuna:karala” (please) at the beginning or the end of the command.

Karuna:karala oya: yanna.
Oya: yanna karuna:karala.
(You go please.)

Karuna:karala yanna
Yanna karuna:karala.
(Go please.)

Karuna:karala oya: yanna epa: . / Oya: yanna epa: karuna:karala.
Karuna:karala epa: oya: yanna. / Epa: oya: yanna karuna:karala.
Karuna:karala oya: epa: yanna. / Oya: epa: yanna karuna:karala.
(You don’t go please.)

Karuna:karala yanna epa: . / Yanna epa: karuna:karala.
Karuna:karala epa: yanna. / Epa: yanna karuna:karala.
(Don’t go please.)

If you like, you can substitute “please” for “karuna:karala” too. For example,

Please oya: yanna. / Oya: yanna please.
(Please go.)

Please yanna epa: . / Yanna epa: please.
(Please don’t go.)

You can make the command milder. And it is probably can be considered as a plead now (instead of a command). For that, you append “-ko” to the “nna verb”. You may include “please” or “karuna:karala” to make it “much milder”. There is no negative form of this.

Oya: yannako.
Yannako oya:
Yannako.
(Go. Will you?)

You can also make the command stronger/stringent. You specially use this form of command when you are mad at somebody (or scolding somebody or in a quarrel, etc). You never use this form of command at your parents, older relatives, teachers, honorable people, etc. It’s harsh. To make this harsh command, you put a verb made as follows (you remove the “nava:” from the “nava: verb” form, and append “pan” to it). No negative form of this exists.

Karanava: → Karanava: + pan = Karapan

Potha liyapan.
(Read the book.)

Surprisingly, this same command form is used among friends too. Then it has no harsh meaning, but instead it gets a friendly meaning. Only in this situation, you may add “please” or “karuna:karala” to this command.


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