Saturday, July 29, 2017

Let's Learn Sinhalese in English 15

    4 .      -ath” – although/though/even though/even if

“-ath” is not used in past time (in the subordinate clause). It is appened to the tense verb of the subordinate clause, and the verb form is always in the past time form and the ending vowel is dropped.

      karanava: -> (kala: ) -> kalath
      sellam karanava: -> (sellam kala: ) -> sellam kalath
      call karanava: -> (call kala: ) -> call kalath

      dhakinava: -> (dhaekka: ) -> dhaekkath
      venava: -> (vuna: ) -> vunath

      yanava: -> (giya: ) -> giyath
      kanava: -> (kae:va: ) -> kae:vath
      bonava: -> (bivva: ) -> bivvath
      dhenava: -> (dhunna: ) -> dhunnath

      Oya: e:ka kivvath mama oya: ekka tharaha naehae.
      (I am not angry with you even if you tell it.)
      (I am not angy with you even if you told it.)

      Oya: giyath mama pa:dam karanava: .
      (Though you go, I will study.)

      Mata mahansi vunath mama e:ka ivara karanava: .
      (Even though I am tired, I will finish it.)

      Api haemada:ma katha: kara kara hitiyath, api ho’mda ya:luvo neme: .
      (Even if we were/are talking/chatting everyday, we are not good friends.)

      Mama ho’mdin pa:dam nokalath mama viba:gaya pass una: .
      (Even if I did not study well, I passed the exam.)

     5.      Pera, issella – before

Here, the verb in the subordinate clause takes the form of infinitive (that is “-nna”, “-nda”, “-nnata”). In Sinhala, the subordinate clause has no difference in time (same for all 3 times).

      Eya: enna/ennata/enda pera/issella man yanava: .
      (Before he comes, I go.)

      Eya: enna issella man giye:/giya: .
      (I went before he came.)

      Eya: enna issella man ya:vi.
      (I will go before he comes.)

    6.      Pasu , passe – after

Here, the verb is always in the past tense form, and this past tense verb is also appended “-ta”. The subordinate clause has no difference in time.

      Eya: a:va:ta pasu/passe mama yanava: .
      (After he comes, I go.)

      Eya: a:va:ta passe mama giye:/giya: .
      (After he came, I went.)

      Eya: a:va:ta passe mama ya:vi/yanava: .
      (After he comes, I will go.)

    7.      Eke: - now that

The verb in the subordinate clause must be in the “-pu” form.

      Oya: a:pu eke:, adha mehe: navathinna.
      (Now that you came, stay here today.)

      Eya: e:ka kana eke:, oyatath kanna puluvan baya naethiva.
      (Now that he eats it, you too can eat it without fear.)

You may put the emphasizer suffix “-ma” to conjuctions. In English, you use “just” for that.

Oya: ena nisa:ma/hindha:ma man adha lassanata adhinava: .
(Just because you come, I wear beautifully today.)
Eya: kanna isselama, man kae:va: .
(Just before he ate, I ate.)

Api tv bala bala inna kotama, current giya: .
(Just while we were watching tv, electricity/power went off). (That is, there was a power cut.)
In English, you have “once” to give the meaning “just when”; and in Sinhala we have “gamanma” (gaman+ma) for that.
Oya: gedharata giya gamanma mata call ekak dhenna.
(Once you go home, give me a call.)
Now let’s learn how to use the other category of conjuctions (and, but, or), which make compound sentences. However, in Sinhala it is a little bit more complicated than in English. Therefore, I will explain Sinhala compound sentences and some related/incidental matters in a few sections in terms of English ones.

     1.      In English, you use comma and “and” to join nouns, adjectives, adverbs, preposition (I am excluding the verb from this section for a very good reason). In Sinhala, you use the same method, and the equivalent Sinhala word for “and” is “saha” or “ha:”.

      Sherin, Sheela, Doris, ha:/saha Nita (Sherin, Sheela, Doris, and Nita)
      usa, mahatha, ha lassana lamaya: (the tall, fat, and beautiful child)
      ikmanin, ha lassanata liyanava: (write quickly, and beautifully)
      me:saya uda ha vate:ta (on and around the table)

     2.      You can use “and” to join verbs in English just as you did with other types of words described in the first section. However, in Sinhala, it is different. You don’t use comma or “saha/ha:” with verbs. Instead there is a different method. Let’s learn it now.

Each verb except the last verb (in the list of verbs/verb phrases) is converted to “-la:” form. The “-la:” verb is constructed by removing “nava:” from the original “-nava: verb” and appending “-la” to it. There are a few exceptions in the usual pattern too (I have listed some/most of them)

      karanava: -> karala:
      balanava: -> balala:
      natanava: -> natala:
      venava: -> vela:

      kanava: -> ka:la:
      bonava: -> bi:la:
      yanava: -> gihilla:
      enava: -> aevilla:
      dhenava: -> dhi:la:
      ge:nava: (bring) -> genaella:

      The mother cooks, and eats.
      Amma: uyala: kanava: .

      The mother cooks, eats, and drinks.
      Amma: uyala: ka:la: bonava: .

All above examples are just single verbs (verb participles). However, you know the rights of a verb (having adverbs, objects/complements, preposition parts) now. Therefore, you can construct verb phrases as follows too.

      The mother cooks rice, and eats quickly.
      Amma: bath uyala: ikmanin kanava: .

      The mother cooks rice, eats quickly, and drinks water slowly.
      Amma: bath uyala: ikmanin ka:la: vathura semin bonava: .

      Mama potha kiyavala: e:ka kiyannadha?
      (Shall I read the book and tell it (then)?)

      Nancy liyuma kiyavala: ae’mduva: .
      (Nancy read the letter, and cried.)

      Api heta udhe: ka:la: ehe: yanava: .
      (We will eat and go there tomorrow morning.)

     3.      In English, you can join two or more sentences with “and”. In Sinhala too, you can do the same. If you want to translate such an English compound sentence, you may translate clauses in the compound sentence individually disregarding “and” there.

Optionally, you may put an adverb “e: athare:” between the two individual sentences/clauses (that is, the second sentence starts with “e: athare:”). Still two or several sentences are there.

Or else, you may optionally put a Sinhala conjuction “athare:” between the two individual clauses, and now there is only one big compound sentence. Here, the verb of the first clause is modified – “va:” part is removed from the “-nava:” verb in the present time; in the past time, you should use “-pu” verb form instead. Also note that in the past tense, you can still use the present time form.

      The mother is cooking, and the father is reading the newspaper.
      Amma: uyanava: (or uyamin innava: ) . Tha:ththa: paththaraya kiyavanava: (or kiyavamin innava: ).
      Amma: uyanava: (or uyamin innava: ) . E: athare: tha:ththa: paththaraya kiyavanava: (or kiyavamin innava: ).
      Amma: uyana(or uyamin inna) athare: tha:ththa: paththaraya kiyavanava: (or kiyavamin innava: ).

      The mother was cooking, and the father was reading the newspaper.
      Amma: uya uya hitiya: (or ivva: ) . Tha:ththa: paththaraya kiyavamin hitiya: (or kiyevva: ).
      Amma: uyamin hitiya: (or ivva: ). E: athare: tha:ththa: paththaraya kiyavamin hitiya: (or kiyevva: )
      Amma: uyamin hitapu (or uyapu) athare: tha:ththa: paththaraya kiyavamin hitiya: (or kiyevva: ).
      Amma: uyamin inna (or uyana) athare: tha:ththa: paththaraya kiyavamin hitiya: (or kiyevva: ).

     4.      For English “but”, Sinhala has the equivalent “namuth” or “eheth” (actually, “eheth” is similar to “however”, but just as English speakers use “but” in places where “however” should be used, Sinhala speakers too do the same).

Here, the verb in the first clause (before the “but”) is modified as in section 3 above. The “va:” part is removed from the present time “-nava:” verb. In the past time, “-pu” verb is used.

      I am eating rice, but the mother is eating bread.
      Mama bath kamin inna namuth amma: pa:n kamin innava: .

      Peter listened to the radio, but Nancy watched tv.
      Peter radio ekata ahumkan dunna namuth Nancy tv baeluva: .

     5.      English “or” actually has several meanings/usages. In one usage, it shows two alternatives. These alternatives may be nouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions (I exclude verbs from this list). In this sense, Sinhala uses “ho:”.

      Anne ho: Rita (Anne or Rita)
      rathu ho: kola shirt eka ganna. (Take the red or green shirt.)
      ikmanin ho: lassanata liyanna. (Write quickly or beautifully.)
      me:saya udin ho: yatin potha thiyanna. (Put the book on or under the table.)

Optionally there is another popular pattern; actually this is equivalent to English pattern “either…or…”. Here, the Sinhala pattern is “ekko: … naethinam …”. You put the two words in the two blanks. In case of prepositions, you may optionally put “ekko:” even before the noun connected to the preposition.

      ekko: Anne: naethinam Rita (either Anne or Rita)
      ekko: rathu naethinam kola shirt eka ganna. (Take either the red or green shirt.)
      ekko: ikmanin naethinam lassanata liyanna. (Write either quickly or beautifully.)

      me:saya ekko: udin naethinam yatin potha thiyanna.
      ekko: me:saya udin naethinam yatin potha thiyanna.
      (Put the book either on or under the table.)

     6.      Sometimes you want to refer to the same person/thing in different names, nouns, capacities, designations, etc. In English, “or” (in the sense of “also known as”) is used for this usage too, but in Sinhala “hevath” or “nohoth” is used.

      William hevath/nohoth Willy (William or/also known as Willy)
      polova hevath/nohoth nil grahaya: (the Earth or/also known as the blue planet)
      Martin hevath yakada miniha: (Martin or the iron man)

     7.      In giving commands, you can give alternatives (“do this or do that”). In Sinhala, we use the same pattern as we saw in section 5 above (“ekko: … naethinam …”).

      ekko: satan karanna naethinam duvanna. (Fight or fligh) (either fight or flight)
      ekko: me:ka kanna naethinam maerenna. (Eath this or die.)

     8.      You can use “or” to join two sentences in the sense that “ ‘you do this (a command)’ or else ‘something else will happen (a consequence)’ “. In Sinhala too, we have this same pattern. Here, you just say a simple sentence (“you do this” type of sentence), and then put “naethinam” and after that you say the other “something else will happen” type sentence.

      Oya: kanna naethinam oya: maerevi. (You eat or else you will die.)
      Oya: yanna naethinam eya:ta dhuka hithe:vi. (You go or else she will feel sad.)

There are two other methods of joining two sentences.
      1.      English sentences using relative pronouns (who, whom, which, that).

Actually this sentence pattern is already covered. Do you remember how you constructed the following type of Sinhala sentences?

      Ge:ttuva la’mga a’mdamin inna lamaya: mage: nangi:.
      (The girl who is crying at the gate is my younger sister.)

      2.      Reported speech & “that” clauses

Here, you join two sentences with “that” or some other connective word having the same effect (see the examples). We are going to construct Sinhala sentences for the following types of English sentences.

      Josh said that he did it.
      Jane asked if/whether you did it.
      Joseph wants to know what you did really.

It’s very easy to make these types of sentences in Sinhala. You have to follow the same pattern for all these three types (English had 3 structures, but Sinhala has only 1 structure for them all). You just say the both clauses in usual ways, and put/say “kiyala” after the “that clause”. That’s it.

      Josh kivva: eya: e:ka kala: kiyala. (Josh said that he did it.)
      Josh kivva: eya: e:ka kale: naehae kiyala. (Josh said that he did not do it.)
      Josh kiyanava: eya: e:ka karanava: kiyala. (Josh says he will do it.)

      Jane aehuva: oya: e:ka kala:dha kiyala. (Jane asked if you did it.)
      Jane ahanava oya: e:ka kale: naedhdha kiyala. (Jane asked if you did not do it.)

      Josephta dhaena ganna o:na oya: mokakdha kale: kiyala. (Joseph wants to know what you did.)

The Final Lesson.

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