Saturday, July 29, 2017

Let's Learn Sinhalese in English 14



So far what we have learned is to construct a Sinhala sentence. We learned to make different kinds of simple sentences, wh questions in all tenses (ordinary, continual, perfect, perfect continuous), in all three times (present, past, future), in all six variants (positive and negative statements, positive and negative questions, positive and negative tag questions), using helping verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositional parts, etc.
 
Usually we join several sentences into one larger/longer sentence too. In English we do this in a few ways, and the two most popular ways are firstly using conjuctions like “because”, “though”, “if”, etc (called “complex sentences”), and secondly using the conjuctions of “and”, “but”, “or” (called “compound sentences”). 
 
First I will talk about constructing complex sentences (long sentences that use such conjunctions as “because”, “if”, etc). Here, there must be (at least) two sentences, and one of them is the main sentence/clause. The other sentence which may be called “subordinate clause” is kind of “causal” (that is, the subordinate clause says/has some reason on which the main clause (main action) is dependent). Let’s examine this in English first.
 
Because I studied hard, I could pass the exam.
 
In this complex sentence, “I could pass the exam” is the main clause (because it is primarily what we wanted to convey to others), and “I studied hard” is the subordinate clause (as you can notice, the main clause happened because of the action this sentence has). “because” which is placed just before the subordinate clause is the conjuction. However, in Sinhala, the conjuction is placed just after the subordinate clause (while doing so, sometimes the verb form of the subordinate clause is modified).
Let’s learn about Sinhala conjunctions one by one.

     1.      Nisa: , hindha: - because/as/since

    First I write the two clauses separately as follows, and then show you how to join them.

      Mama mahansiyen pa:dam kala: . (I studied hard.)
Mata viba:gaya pass venna puluvan vuna: . (I could pass the exam.)


      Now let’s use “nisa:” or “hindha” to join these sentences. You already construct this kind of sentences in English, and therefore it is not a problem at all to identify the subordinate clause (trust on your English language skill, and Sinhala follows almost the same rules here). Here, “mama mahansiyen pa:dam kala:” (I studied hard) is the subordinate clause. Therefore, you just put the conjunction after that, and simply write the other sentence thereafter.

      Mama mahansiyen pa:dam kala nisa:/hindha: mata viba:gaya pass venna puluvan vuna: .
(Because I studied hard, I could pass the exam.)

      However, the verb form in the subordinate clause has changed a bit. It is a very simple modification. Apply the following rules. You must follow these same rules in most of other conjuctions too.

      (a) If the verb is in past time (like, “kala:”, “baenna:”, “vuna:”), then the last/ending long vowel is just made a short vowel.

      kala: -> kala
      baenna: -> baenna
      vuna: -> vuna
      maeruva: -> maeruva

Or else, there is another alternative too, and that is to change the verb into “-pu” verb form (you learned how to construct this verb form earlier when we talked about deriving an adjective out of a verb). I think it is easier and methodical if you derive the “-pu” verb form from the present tense (original) verb, rather than from its past tense verb (because when we construct the past tense form from the present tense verb itself, it is already disformed). However, some verbs may not possess this “-pu” form.

      kala: -> karapu
      baenna: -> baenapu
      maeruva: -> marapu
      vuna: -> vunu (why this form? If you can’t remember, read the past lessons again)

(b) If the verb is in present time (like, “karanava:”, “baninava:”, “venava:”), then the ending “va:” part is removed.

      karanava: -> karana
      baninava: -> banina
      venava: -> vena
      maranava: -> marana

(c) If the verb is in negative form (like, “karanne: naehae” or “kale: naehae”), then the “naehae” part is changed to “naethi”.

      karanne: naehae -> karanne: naethi
      kale: naehae -> kale: naethi

      Lamayi sellam karanava: . (Children play.)
      Egollo thuva:la venava: . (They get injured.)

      Lamai sellam karana hindha: egollo thuva:la venava: .
      (Because children play, they get injured.)

Really, it does not matter the tense (continual, ordinary, perfect) in Sinhala that much because the ending verb part of each tense verb is always a normal “-nava:” (present time), and its normal past time and future time forms. You of couse can use future time clauses too (making no difference structurally).

The only thing is to use your common sense when constructing sentences (this also applies to English and any other language for that matter). For example, you cannot make a complex sentence as follows even in English. Right?

      Because I will study hard, I passed the exam.


Here, the cause and effect is reversed, and therefore the meaning is illogical and even funny. Just thinking that you can construct any sentence by rigidly following a set of rules is grossly wrong; there has to be a logical meaning in the constructed sentence too (use common sense).

      Eya: haemathissema sindhu kiya kiya innava: . (She is always singing.)
      Eya: ho’mda ga:yakayek ve:vi. (She will become a good singer.)


      Eya: haemathissema sindhu kiya kiya inna nisa: eya: ho’mda ga:yakayek ve:vi.
      (Because she is always singing, she will become a good singer.)

      Eya: haemathissema sindhu kiyamin inna nisa: eya: ho’mda ga:yakayek ve:vidha?
      (Will she become a good singer because she is always singing?)

      Eya: haemathissema sindhu kiya kiya hitiya: . (She was always singing.)
      Eya: ho’mda ga:yakayek ve:vi. (She will become a good singer.)


      Eya: haemathissema sindhu kiya kiya hitapu/siti nisa: eya: ho’mda ga:yakayek ve:vi.
      (Because she was always singing, she will become a good singer.)

      Eya: haemathissema sindhu kiyamin hitapu/siti nisa: eya: ho’mda ga:yakayek vune:   naedhdha?
      (Didn’t she become a good singer because she was always singin?)

      Api vaththa pirisidhu karala: thiyenava: . (We have cleaned the garden.)
      Madhuruvo bo:venne: naehae. (Mosquitoes don’t breed.)


      Api vaththa pirisidhu karala: thiyena nisa: madhuruvo bo:venne: naehae.
      (Because we have cleaned the garden, mosquitoes don’t breed.)

      Api vaththa ho’mdin pirisidhu kale: nathi nisa: madhuruvo bo: vuna: .
      (Because we did not clean the garden well, mosquitos bred.)

If the subject is same in both clauses, then you may omit the subject in the subsequent clause.

      Eya: haemathissema sindhu kiya kiya inna nisa: eya: ho’mda ga:yakayek ve:vi.
      Eya: haemathissema sindhu kiya kiya inna nisa: eya: ho’mda ga:yakayek ve:vi.
      (Because she is always singing, she will become a good singer.)

      Amma: uyana nisa: eya:ta tv balanna baehae.
      (Because the mother is cooking, she can’t watch tv.)


     2.      Vita, kota, gaman, -hama – while/when/as

     You generally follow the same set of rules described above. However, there are special points here. First, you don’t use “-pu” verb form in this case. Secondly, in every time (present, past, future), you use the same verb form in the subordinate clause. “gaman” is not used in negative subordinate clauses.

      Lamaya: a’mdana kota, amma:th a’mdanava: .
      (When the child cries, the mother too cries.)

      Lamaya: a’mdana kota, amma:ath ae’mduva: .
      (When the child cried, the mother too cried.)

      Lamaya: a’mdanne: naethi vita, amma: a’mda:vidha?
      (When the child does not cry, will the mother cry?)

      Note:
In Sinhaal you append “-th” to a noun to get the meaning of “too/also”. For example,

      amma:th – the mother too
      mamath – I/me too
      oya:th – you too
      balla:th – the dog too
      minissuth – men too or the men too (there is no definite-indefinite difference in plural in Sinhala)

And when the noun ends with a consonant sound, then “-uth” is used instead.

      ballekuth – a dog too
      gahakuth – a tree too
      bus ekakuth – a bus too
      Sherinuth – Sherin too

When a noun is suffixed with propositional modifier, then, “-th” suffix is put even after that.

      amma:gen (from the mother) -> amma:genuth (from the mother too)
      ahase: (in the sky) -> ahase:th (in the sky too)

      Amma: uyamin inna gaman, eya: tv balanava: .
      (While the mother is cooking, she is watching tv.)

      Oya: pa:dam karanne naethi vita, sindhu ahanna.
      (When you do not study, listen to songs/music.)


        “-hama” is suffixed to the verb of the subordinate clause. Before suffixing it, you modify that verb a little bit. You change the verb into its past tense form first.

      balanava:, baeluva: -> (baeluva: ) -> baeluva:hama
      karanava:, keruva:/kala: -> (keruva:, kala:) -> keruva:hama,  kala:hama

      Eya: man dhiha baeluva:hama, mata a:daraya hithuna: .
      (When she looked at me, I felt love.)

      Eya: man dhiha baeluva:hama, mata a:daraya hithenava: .
      (When she looks at me, I feel love.)




3.  Nam, -hoth/-oth – if/provided that/in case that

When using “nam”, you simply put it after the subordinate clause with no modification to the verb.

      Oya: gedhara yanava: nam, me:kath geniyanna.
      (If you go home, take this too.)

      Oya: eya:va dhaekka: nam, aeyi katha: kale: naeththe:?
      (If you saw her, why did you not talk?)

      Eya: oya:va dhaekke: naethi nam, baya venna epa: .
      (If she did not see you, don’t be afraid.)

“-oth/-hoth” is not used in past time. When using “-oth”, it is appened to the tense verb, and the verb form is always the past time form and the ending vowel is dropped. When using “-hoth”, it is appened to the tense verb, and the verb form is again the past time form, and now the long ending vowel is shortened.

      balanava:  -> (baeluva:) -> baeluvoth, baeluvahoth
      gahanava:  -> (gaehuva:) -> gaehuvoth, gaehuvahoth
      karanava: -> (kala:) -> kaloth, kalahoth
      venava: -> (vuna: ) -> vunoth, vunahoth
      kanava: -> (kae:va: ) -> kae:voth, kae:vahoth
      dhenava: -> (dhunna: ) -> dhunnoth, dhunnahoth

      Oya: gedhara giyoth me:kath geniyanna.
      (If you go home, take this too.)

      Mata geyak thibboth oya: ma:va kasa:dha badhinava:dha?
      (If I have a house, Will you marry me?)

Note:
To say somebody/something has or possesses something, we use the Sinhala verb “thiyenava:”. Then, the subject (the person/thing that possesses) is appened “-ta” in Sinhala. In the past time, it is “thibuna:”; and in the future tense, it is “thiye:vi”. The negative form is “naehae” (present), “thibbe/thibune naehae” (past), “thiyena ekak naehae” (future).

      Eya:ta geyak thiyenava: . (He has a house.)
      Eya:ta geyak thibuna: . (He had a house)
      Eya:ta geyak thiyenava:dha? (Does he have a house?)
      Eya:ta geyak thibuna:dha? (Did he have a house?)

      Mata car ekak thiyenava: . (I have a car.)
      Mata car ekak thiye:vi. (I will have a car)
      Mata car ekak naehae. (I don’t have a car.)
      Mata car ekak thibune: naehae. (I did not have a car.)

      Sheelata computer ekak thiyenava: . (Sheela has a computer.)
      Sheelata computer ekak thiyenna o:na. (Sheela should have a computer.)

And, when the object/complement after “thiyenava:” or “thibuna:” or “thiye:vi” is animate/living, then we must use “innava:”, “hitiya:” or “hi’mdi:vi” instead. Don’t take these verbs in the usual meaning of “stay/stayed/will stay” then. The negative form is “naehae” (present), “hitiye: naehae” (past), “inna ekak naehae” (future).

      Mata ballek innava: (I have a dog.)
      Mata ballek naehae. (I do not have a dog.)
      Mata ballek innava:dha? (Do I have a dog?)
      Mata ballek naethidha/naedhdha? (Don’t I have a dog?)

      Sheelata kollek innava: . (Sheela has a boyfriend.)
      Sheelata kollek hitiya: . (Sheela had a boyfriend.)
      Sheelata kollek hitiya:dha? (Did sheela have a boyfriend?)
      Sheelata kollek hitiye naehae. (Sheel did not have a boyfriend.)

      Eya:ta kellek hi’mdi:vi. (He will have a girlfriend.)
      Eya:ta kellek inna ekak naehae. (He will not have a girlfriend.)

There are some more verbs like “thiyenava:/innava: (have)”  that requires appending “-ta” to the subject/doer. These verbs are:

      hithenava: (think without efforts, feel)
      duka hithenava: (feel sad)
      sathutu hithenava: (feel happy)

You can construct verbs like the two examples above by putting some adjective (which describes some emotion) after “hithenava:”. And all of those forms will behave in the same manner. The same principle applies to the following case (“dhaenenava:”) and many other occasions too.

      dhaenenava: (feel)
      sathutu dhaenenava: (feel happy)
      duka dhaenenava: (feel sad)

      mathak/sihi venava: (remember)
      hina: yanava: (laugh)
      ke:nthi yanava: (get angry, go mad)
      nindha yanava: (fall asleep)
      kivisum yanava: (sneeze)

      Mata eya: gaena dhuka hithenava: . (I feel sad about him.)
      Tha:ththata ikmanin ke:nathi yanava: . (The father gets angry quickly.)

There may be more verbs behaving like above, and when you practice the language, you will find easy and comfortable.


There is an interesting property in conjuctions which are appended to the verb of the subordinate clause. That is, when you make the subordinate clause negative, you prefix “no-“ to the verb of the subordinate clause. See the following examples.

      Mata geyak nothibboth, oya: ma:va kasa:dha badhinne: naedhdha?
      (If I do not have a house, don’t/won’t you marry me?)

      Eya: e:ka pass novunoth, eya:ta job eka laebena ekak naedhdha?
      (If he does not pass the exam, Won’t he get the job.)

Actually, this method (of prefixing “no-“) may be used with other conjuctions which are not suffixed to the verb as well.

      Mata geyak nothibba: nam, oya: ma:va kasa:dha badhinava:dha?
      (If I did not have a house, do/will you marry me?)

      Eya: aeththa nokiyanava: nam, kohomadha mama eya:va visva:sa karanne:?
      (If he does not tell the truth, how do I trust him?)

      Eya: aeththa nokiyanava: nam, kohomadha mata eya:va visva:sa karanna puluvan?
      (If he does not tell the truth, how can I trust him?)



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