Friday, July 28, 2017

Let's Learn Sinhalese in English 12



1.       
     4.      avashyai, o:na, o:ne – need , want to

You take the tense verb and put one of above helping verbs after it. The doer is appened with “-ta” suffix too. You can make the variants as usual now.

      Mata natanna o:na/o:ne/avashyai. (I need dance.)
      Mata natanna o:na/o:ne/avashya naehae. (I need not dance.)
      Mata natanna o:nadha/o:nedha/avashyadha? (Need I dance?)
      Mata natanna o:na/o:ne/avashya naedhdha? (Need I not dance?)

      Mata dhaksha venna o:na/o:ne/avashyai. (I need/want to be clever.)
      Eya:ta doctor kenek venna: o:na/o:ne/avashyai. (He/She need/wants to be a doctor.)
      Apita ethaena inna o:na/o:ne/avashyai. (We need/want to be there.)

You can make the past time form of this helping verb with “o:na/o:ne/avashya vuna:”. The future time form can be constructed with “o:na/o:ne/avashya ve:vi”.

      Mata natanna o:na/o:ne/avashya vuna: . (I wanted to dance.)
      Mata natanna o:na/o:ne/avashya vune: naehae. (I did not want to dance.)
      Mata natanna o:na/o:ne/avashya vuna:dha? (Did I want to dance?)
      Mata natanna o:na/o:ne/avashya vune: naedhdha? (Did I not want to dance?)

      Mata natanna o:na/o:ne/avashya ve:vi. (I will want to dance.)
      Mata natanna o:na/o:ne/avashya vena ekak naehae. (I will not want to dance.)
      Mata natanna o:na/o:ne/avashya ve:vidha? (Will I want to dance?)
      Mata natanna o:na/o:ne/avashya vena ekak naedhdha? (Will I not want to dance?)

     5.      aethi , venna/venda/vennata puluvan – may/might

You just have to put this after the tense verb. When making the negative statement, you can put “venna baehae” or “naethiva aethi”. And if you use “naethiva aethi”, then the tense verb must be in “-nne:” form.

      Teacher uganvanava: aethi/venna puluvan. (The female teacher might teach.)

      Teacher uganvanava: venna baehae.
      Teacher uganvanne: naethiva aethi.

      (The female teacher may not teach.)

      Teacher uganvanava: aethidha?
      Teacher uganvanava: venna puluvandha?
      (May the female teacher teach?)

      Teacher uganvanava: venna baeridha?
      Teacher uganvanne: naethiva aethidha?
      (May the female teacher not teach?)


      Amma: bath uyamin/uya uya aethi.
      Amma: bath uyamin/uya uya innava: aethi.
      Amma: bath uyamin/uya uya innava: venna puluvan.
      (The mother may be cooking rice.)

      Amma: bath uyamin/uya uya naethiva aethi.
      Amma: bath uyamin/uya uya inne: naethiva aethi.
      Amma: bath uyamin/uya uya innava: venna baehae.
      (The mother may not be cooking rice.)

      Amma: bath uyamin/uya uya aethidha?
      Amma: bath uyamin/uya uya innava: aethidha?
      Amma: bath uyamin/uya uya innava: venna puluvandha?
      (May the mother be cooking rice?)


      Eya: e:ka karala: aethi.
      Eya: e:ka karala venna puluvan.
      (He/She may have done it.)

      Eya: e:ka karala: naethiva aethi.
      Eya: e:ka karala: venna baehae.
      (He/She may not have done it.)

      Eya: e:ka karala: aethidha?
      Eya: e:ka karala: venna puluvandha?
      (May he/she have done it?)

      Eya: nurse kenek venna aethi/puluvan. (He may be a nurse.)
      Rita lassana venna aethi/puluvan. (Rita may be beautiful.)
      Lamai pittaniye: venna aethi/puluvan. (Children may be in the ground.)

      6.      thiyenava:, sidhdha venava:, sidhu venava: - have to

The verb is changed to infinitive form, and you append “-ta” to the doer.

      Kellyta market ekata yanna thiyenava: .
      Kellyta market ekata yanna sidhdha/sidhu venava: .

      (Kelly has to go the market.)

      Kellyta market ekata yanna naehae. (“thiyenava:” part is dropped.)
      Kellyta market ekata yanna sidhdha/sidhu venne: naehae.
      (Kell has not to go the market.)

      Kellyta market ekata yanna thiyenava:dha?
      Kellyta market ekata yanna sidhdha/sidhu venava:dha?

      (Has Kelly to go to the market?)

      Kellyta market ekata  yanna naedhdha?
      Kellyta market ekata yanna sidhdha/sidhu venne: naedhdha?
      (Has Kelly not to go the market?)

      Gaha kapanna thiyenava: .
      Gaha kapanna sidhdha/sidhu venava: .
      (The tree has to be cut.)

      Mata engineer kenek venna thiyenava: .
      Mata engineer kenek venna sidhdha/sidhu venava: .
      (I have to be/become an engineer.)

      Eya:ta potha kiyavamin/kiyava kiyava inna thiyenava: .
      Eya:ta potha kiyavamin/kiyava kiyava inna sidhdha/sidhu venava: .

      (He/She has to be reading the book.)

You can make the past time of it with “thibuna:” or “vuna:” or “sidhdha/sidhu vuna:” and future time with “thiye:vi” or “ve:vi” or “sidhdha/sidhu ve:vi”.

      Kellyta market ekata yanna thibuna:/vuna: .
      Kellyta market ekata yanna sidhdha/sidhu vuna: .
      (Kelly had to go to the market.)

      Kellyta market ekata yanna thiye:vi/ve:vi.
      Kellyta market ekata yanna sidhdha/sidhu ve:vi.

      (Kelly will have to go to the market.)

Technically, Sinhala has no helping verbs on their own; but as you just learned, you can easily match some Sinhala patterns with the English helping verbs. In fact, what we have done is to connect two verbs together to give some composite meaning, as we do in English like “be going to + eat”, “want to + go”, “plan to + come”, etc. There are some popular Sinhala patterns (but they don’t necessarily correspond to English helping verbs), and I will show some of them below. With the rules you have learned so far, you can make all the variants of them. As you will notice, one of the two verbs in the sentence is most often an infinitive (so, these setences are basically normal sentences with infinitives).
The keyword that you must pay attention is underlined. In some cases, the doer must be suffixed “-ta” (Carefully remember those points in the given examples below). Special points (if any) are made in short after the sentence pattern. There is nothing new to learn now; only the pattern is pointed out in particular.

Mama paththaraya kiyavanna yanava:/yanne:/hadhanne: . (I am going/about to read the newspaper.)
Baba: a’mdanna yanne:/yanava:/hadhanne: . (The baby is going/about to cry.)
Api pitath venna yanne:/yanava:/hadhanne: . (We are going/about to leave.)
Mama kiyavanna neme: yanne:/hadhanne: . (I am not going/about to read.)
Baba: a’mdanna neme: yanne:/hadhanne: . (The baby is not going/about to cry.)
Api pitath venna neme yanne:/hadhanne: . (We are not going/about to leave.)

Mama kiyavannadha yanne:/hadhanne:? (Am I going/about to read?)
Baba: a’mdannadha yanne:/hadhanne:? (Is the baby going/about to cry?)

Mama kiyavanna neme:dha yanne:/hadhanne:? (Am I not going/about to read?)
Baba: a’mdanna neme:dha yanne:/hadhanne:? (Is the baby not going/about to cry?)

Above is the English pattern “is about to” or “is going to”. Below is its past time pattern “was about to” or “was going to”.

Mama paththaraya kiyavanna giye:/hadhuve: . (I was going/about to read the newspaper.)
Baba: a’mdanna giye:/hadhuve: . (The baby was going/about to cry.)
Api pitath venna giye:/hadhuve: . (We were going/about to leave.)
Mama kiyavanna neme: giye:/hadhuve: . (I was not going/about to read.)
Baba: a’mdanna neme: giye:/hadhuve: . (The baby was not going/about to cry.)

Mama kiyavannadha giye:/hadhuve:? (Was I going/about to read?)
Baba: a’mdannadha giye:/hadhuve:? (Was the baby going/about to cry?)

Mama kiyavanna neme:dha giye:/hadhuve:? (Was I not going/about to read?)
Baba: a’mdanna neme:dha giye:/hadhuve:? (Was the baby not going/about to cry?)

Mama labana sathiye: viba:gaya karanna hitha:gena/hithan innava: .
Mama labana sathiye: vib:gaya karanna hithanava: .
(I am planning to do the exam next week.)

Eya: heta e:ka kiyanna hitha:gena/hithan naehae.
(He is not planning to tell it tomorrow.)

Above is the “is planning to” pattern.

Joshta udhe: na:la: purudhui. (Josh is used to bathe in the morning.)
Mata pa:n ka:la: purudhu naehae. (I am not used to eat bread.)

Above, the English keyword is “is used to”, not the helping verb “used to” (there is a difference between them). Also, the Sinhala verb should be in “-la:” form (the kind of verb form that you use in perfect tense). The “used to” pattern is shown below.

Mama e: dhavasvala havasata sellam karanna purudhuva hitiya: . (I used to play in the afternoon those days.)
Eya: cigarette bonna purudhuva hitiye: naehae. (He used not to smoke.)

Mama Sinhala igena ganna a:sai. (I like/love to learn Sinhala.)
Eya: uyanna a:sa naehae. (He does not like to cook.)

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