Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Let's Learn Sinhalese in English 10



In Sinhala too you can find perfect tense. It is very similar to English Perfect tense both in meaning and in the way the perfect tense verb is constructed. First take the “-nava:” verb and remove that “nava:” part, and then append “-la:” to it. Thereafter, you have to put “thiyenava:” (in the present time), “thibuna:” (in the past time), or “thiye:vi” (in the future time) after the “-la:” verb participle.

Karanava: -> karala: thiyenava: (have done)
                -> karala: thibuna: (had done)
                -> karala: thiye:vi (will have done)

Sellam karanava: -> sellam karala: thiyenava: (have played)

Balanava: -> balala: thiyenava: (have looked)

Venava: -> vela: thiyenava: (have become/happened)

Hina: venava: -> hina: vela: thiyenava: (have laughed)

Natanava: -> natala: thiyenava: (have danced)

Allanava: -> allala: thiyenava: (have touched/caught)

When the verb ends with “inava:”, then that part is removed, and “-la:” is appended to it. In addition, if that verb’s first syllable rhymes like “ba”, then that part is changed to “bae” too.

Baninava: -> baenala: thiyenava: (have scolded)

Kahinava: -> kaehala: thiyenava: (have coughed)

Bahinava: -> baehala: thiyenava: (have descended/lowered)

Paninava: -> paenala: thiyenava: (have jumped)

Dakinava: -> daekala: thiyenava: (have seen)

Isinava: -> isala: thiyenava: (have sprinkled)

Hi’mbinava: -> hi’mbala: thiyenava: (have kissed/sniffed)

When the verb ends with “enava:”, then that part is removed, and “-i:la:” is appended to it.

Denava: -> di:la: thiyenava: (have given)

Pipenava: -> pipi:la: thiyenava: (have bloomed/blossomed)

Penenava: -> peni:la: thiyenava: (have seen)

Dhaenenava: -> dhaeni:la: thiyenava: (have felt)

Naemenava: -> naemi:la: thiyenava: (have been bent)

There are some exceptions too (small modifications in the verb) as follows.

Kanava: -> ka:la: thiyenava: (have eaten)

Bonava: -> bi:la: thiyenava: (have drunk)

Yanava: -> gihilla: thiyenava: (have gone)

Enava: -> avilla: thiyenava: (have come)

Gannava: -> aran thiyenava: (have taken)

Ge:nava: -> genath/genalla: thiyenava: (have brought)

Now let’s make some perfect tense sentences.

Mama e:ka karala: thiyenava: . (I have done it.)

Eya: me:ka daekala: thiyenava: . (He/She has seen this.)

Api football sellam karala: thiyenava: . (We have played football.)

Gaha kapala: thiyenava: . (The tree has been cut.)

You can make past and future time sentences of this perfect tense easily with the knowledge you have obtained by now. In the past tense, “thiyenava:” part of the perfect tense is substituted with “thibuna:”. In the future tense, “thiyenava:” part is replaced with “thiye:vi”.

Mama e:ka karala: thibuna: . (I had done it.)

Eya: me:ka daekala: thibuna: . (He/She had seen this.)

Api football sellam karala: thibuna: . (We had played football.)

Gaha kapala: thibuna: . (The tree had been cut.)


Mama e:ka karala: thiye:vi. (I will have done it.)

Eya: me:ka daekala: thiye:vi. (He/She will have seen this.)

Api football sellam karala: thiye:vi. (We will have played football.)

Gaha kapala: thiye:vi. (The tree will have been cut.)

You can now construct the variants of the positive statement of perfect tense. First let’s see how to construct the negative statement. You have to put “naehae” after the perfect tense verb. Then, in the present tense you should drop “thiyenava:”. In the past tense, you change “thibuna:” to “thibune:”; and in the future tense, “thiye:vi” is changed to “thiyena ekak”.

Mama e:ka karala: naehae. (I have not done it.)
Mama e:ka karala: thibune: naehae. (I had not done it.)
Mama e:ka karala: thiyena ekak naehae. (I will not have done it.)

Eya: me:ka daekala: naehae. (She/He has not seen this.)
Eya: me:ka daekala: thibune: naehae. (She/He had not seen this.)
Eya: me:ka daekala: thiyena ekak naehae. (She/He will not have seen this.)

Api football sellam karala: naehae. (We have not played football.)
Api football sellam karala: thibune: naehae. (We had not played football.)
Api football sellam karala: thiyena ekak naehae. (We will not have played football.)

Gaha kapala: naehae. (The tree has not been cut.)
Gaha kapala: thibune: naehae. (The tree had not been cut.)
Gaha kapala: thiyena ekak naehae. (The tree will not have been cut.)

To make the positive question, simply put “-dha” at the end of the tense verb.

Mama e:ka karala: thiyenava:dha? (Have I done it?)
Mama e:ka karala: thibuna:dha? (Had I done it?)
Mama e:ka karala: thiye:vidha? (Will I have done it?)


Eya: me:ka daekala: thiyenava:dha? (Has she/he seen it?)
Eya: me:ka daekala: thibuna:dha? (Had she/he seen it?)
Eya: me:ka daekala: thiye:vidha? (Will she/he have seen it?)

Api football sellam karala: thiyenava:dha? (Have we played football?)
Api football sellam karala: thibuna:dha? (Had we played football?)
Api football sellam karala: thiye:vidha? (Will we have played football?)

Gaha kapala: thiyenava:dha? (Has the tree been cut?)
Gaha kapala: thibuna:dha? (Had the tree been cut?)
Gaha kapala: thiye:vidha? (Will the tree have been cut?)

To make the negative question is as same as what you have been learning and practicing so far. You put “naedhdha” at the end of the tense verb. In the present tense, you also drop “thiyenava:” part. In the past tense, change “thibuna:” to “thibune:”; and in the future tense, change “thiye:vi” into “thiyena ekak”.

Mama e:ka karala: naedhdha? (Have I not done it?)
Mama e:ka karala: thibune: nadhdha? (Had I not done it?)
Mama e:ka karala: thiyena ekak naedhdha? (Will I not have done it?)


Eya: me:ka daekala: naedhdha? (Has she/he not seen this?)
Eya: me:ka daekala: thibune: naedhdha? (Had she/he not seen this?)
Eya: me:ka daekala: thiyena ekak naedhdha? (Will she/he not have seen this?)

Api football sellam karala: naedhdha? (Have we not played football?)
Api football sellam karala: thibune: naedhdha? (Had we not played football?)
Api football sellam karala: thiyena ekak naedhdha? (Will we not have played football?)


Gaha kapala: naedhdha? (Has the tree not been cut?)
Gaha kapala: thibune: naedhdha? (Had the tree not been cut?)
Gaha kapala: thiyena ekak naedhdha? (Will the tree not have been cut?)

There is nothing new in making the tag questions.

Mama e:ka karala: thiyenava: ne:dha? (I have done it. Haven’t I?)
Mama e:ka karala: naehae ne:dha? (I have not done it. Have I?)


Mama e:ka karala: thibuna: ne:dha? (I had done it. Hadn’t I?)
Mama e:ka karala: thibune: naehae ne:dha? (I had not done it. Had I?)

Mama e:ka karala: thiye:vi ne:dha? (I will have done it. Won’t I?)
Mama e:ka karala: thiyena ekak naehae ne:dha? (I will not have done it. Will I?)


Gaha kapala: ne:dha? (The tree has been cut. Hasn’t it?)
Gaha kapala: thibune: naehae ne:dha? (The tree had not been cut. Had it?)
Gaha kapala: thiye:vi ne:dha? (The tree will have been cut. Won’t it?)

Sometimes you drop the “thiyenava:” part in the present perfect tense in the positive statement form too. It has the same perfect tense meaning, but there is something more there now. You use this form when you want to say a perfect tense statement with a surprise, or with a meaning to the effect that “it’s already done and now you can do nothing about it” (that is, denoting the completion of the action).

Eya: e:ka ka:la: . (He has eaten it.)

Lamaya: kiri bi:la: . (The child has drunk milk.)

You can make the perfect continuous tense in Sinhala too. Not only that, you can make it in both active and passive voices (actually in spoken Sinhala, there is no difference in voices); you might know that in English you cannot make perfect continuous tense sentences in passive voice. Here, you can easily make the perfect continuous verb by taking the continual tense verb and replace “innava:” with “i’mdala: thiyenava:”. Very easy!

Mama bath kamin/kaka: i’mdala: thiyenava: . (I have been eating rice.)
Mama bath kamin/kaka: i'mdala: thibuna: . (I had been eating rice.)
Mama bath kamin/kaka: i’mdala: thiye:vi. (I will have been eating rice.)

Francis potha liyamin/liya liya i’mdala: thiyenava: . (Francis has been writing the book.)
Francis potha liyamin/liya liya i’mdala: thibuna: . (Francis had been writing the book.)
Francis potha liyamin/liya liya i’mdala: thiye:vi. (Francis will have been writing the book.)

Gaha kapamin/kapa kapa i’mdala: thiyenava: . (‘someone’ has been cutting the tree. Or the tree has been being cut.)
Gaha kapamin/kapa kapa i’mdala: thibuna: . (‘someone’ had been cutting the tree. Or the tree had been being cut.)
Gaha kapamin/kapa kapa i’mdala: thiye:vi. (‘someone’ will have been cutting the tree. Or the tree will have been being cut.)

You can make all the variants just like the perfect tense (because even the perfect continuous tense verb has “thiyenava:” at the end).

Mama bath kamin/kaka: i’mdala: naehae. (I have not been eating rice.)
Mama bath kamin/kak: i’mdala: thiyenava:dha? (Have I been eating rice?)
Mama bath kamin/kaka: i’mdala: naedhdha? (Have I not been eating rice?)
Mama bath kamin/kaka: i’mdala: thiyenava: ne:dha? (I have been eating rice. Haven’t I?)
Mama bath kamin/kaka: i’mdala: naehae ne:dha? (I have not been eating rice. Have I?)

Francis potha liyamin/liya liya i’mdala: thibune: naehae. (Francis had not been writing the book.)
Francis potha liyamin/liya liya i’mdala: thibuna:dha? (Had Francis been writing the book?)
Francis potha liyamin/liya liya i’mdala: thibune: naedhdha? (Had Francis not been writing the book?)
Francis potha liyamin/liya liya i’mdala: thibuna: ne:dha? (Francis had been writing the book. Hadn’t he?)
Francis potha liyamin/liya liya i’mdala: thibune: naedhdha? (Francis had not been writing the book. Had he?)

Now we have covered all the tenses that you find in both Sinhala and English. I strongly suggest you to study and memorize grammar points and patterns well in the lessons in order, without jumping here and there.

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